Nice 2017
Logo exposition Ecoles(s) de Nice
Exhibitions 23 June~15 october

L'École de Nice en 21 dates

Armand Fernandez, Yves Klein and Claude Pascal meet at the Police judo school in Nice and become friends. One day on the beach, the three young men decide to divide the universe up between them : Klein lays claim to the blue emptiness of the distant sky; the poet Claude Pascal, takes the air, which left the land and its riches to Arman.

Paul Mari - arts student and poet - and Robert Rovini - a German teacher at Masséna College and poet—found the Club des Jeunes in the basement of Le Ballon d’Alsace, a brasserie on 65 rue Gioffredo. Every Saturday, a group of young, eager painters, sculptures and poets (Henri Maccheroni, Ange Falchi, Francis Roux, Arman and later Ben Vautier, Jacques Lepage, Paul Vincensini, René Decugis, Jean Onimus) would meet up to talk about art, poetry, theatre, literature and film.

Éliane Radigue meets Ben on the Promenade des Anglais and introduces him to Arman and Klein.

Arman begins work on his Allures d’objets. He soaks objects in oil-based paint before rolling them on paper or canvas where they leave traces.

Ben opens Laboratoire 32in Nice at 32 rue Tondutti-de-l’Escarène. A record store, bookshop, flea market, swap shop and meeting and exhibition space, Laboratoire 32 later changed its name to Galerie Ben Doute de Tout and was joined by La Fenêtre in 1972.

Guy Rottier (1922-2013), an engineer and architect who had worked with Le Corbusier, sets up an office in Nice in 1958 (until 1969).
Through Bernar Venet, he meets Arman for whom he would build the home and studio Le Bidonville in Vence in 1965.

Arman produces his first accumulation in situ, Les Fleurs, at Hôtel Ruhl. Paul-Armand Gette (born in 1927), who moved to Nice in 1951, produces his first ‘verbal crystallisations’ that he exhibited for the first time at the Librairie Matarasso in july 1960.

For a year, Martial Raysse worked on assemblages of plastic objects (cleaning product bottles, scrubbing brushes) entitled Arbre (1959-1960) a symbol of the advent of the consumer society and the plastic age.

Yves Klein experimented his first ‘Cosmogonies’ in Cagnes-sur-Mer. These paintings, produced at the mouth of the River Loup, used elements found in the air and plants, from the wind, leaf prints, reeds, to tufts of grass and river water.

first mention of the École de Nice by Claude Rivière when he asked « Is there an école de Nice ? », in his article « The artist’s solar charge » published in the communist journal Combat.

Ben writes his manifesto on the new« To make art is to make something new ». On 12 November, he presents it at the Club des Jeunes during a conference on « All and nothing ». The same day, Arman buys his auctioneer's shirt for 1.93 francs as a work of art.

Robert Malaval produces his first ‘White Foods’ and presents a collection of Relief-Paintings made from crumpled paper at the Les Magesgallery in Vence.

Arman produces his first ‘Rages’, destructive art made by beating musical instruments with a club.

Jacques Lepage also uses the expression ‘École de Nice’ in an article published in Lettres Françaises - the literary and cultural section of the French Communist party - but, in this instance, to draw parallels between the work of Paul-Armand Gette and the spirit and approach of Arman.

the first Nouveau Réalisme festival is organised by Pierre Restany in Nice. The Muratore gallery holds an exhibition showing artworks by Arman, César, Dufrêne, Hains, Klein, Raysse, Rotella, Niki de Saint Phalle, Spoerri et Villeglé. On the evening of 13 July, the Abbaye de Roseland holds the Avant-Garde Festival featuring a series of live actions and performances.

Jean-Pierre Mirouze produces a documentary film entitled École de Nice a part of which was filmed in Martial Raysse's studio, on rue Notre Dame in Nice.

Annie Baricalla, Ben, Robert Bozzi, Robert Erébo, Dany Gobert et Pierre Pontani found the Théâtre Total, in Nice, and submit its statutes to the Alpes-Maritimes prefecture.

Bernar Venet moves to rue Pairolière in Vieux Nice where he produces his first ‘cartons peints’.

Bernar Venet finds a pile of gravel mixed with tar at the corner of Jardin Albert Ier. This black mass reminds him of his ‘tar’ paintings and he contemplates the possibility of making it into a sculpture.

: the European Fluxus tour ends in Nice where Ben organises, assisted by George Maciunas the Festival Mondial Fluxus et Art Total.

Claude Gilli exhibits his « Ex-Votos » at Galerie A, rue de France in Nice accompanied by work by Robert Malaval and Martial Raysse.
Arman debuts his « Combustions » in Nice. The idea for these pieces came to him as he watched a Louis XV chair burning in a rubbish tip in Amsterdam.

Jean-Claude Farhi presents his « Reliefs »pieces made by soldering engines together and displayed in plexiglas that he entitles « Motorcolor ».

art critic Otto Hahn writes a piece in the weekly newspaper L’Express entitled « L’École de Nice » which has something of an impact, Gaumont news deciding to make a film on Nice in which Arman, Ben, Jean-Claude Fahri, Claude Gilli, Martial Raysse et Bernar Venet.

Bernar Venet produces his first paintings comprising mathematical formulas in his studio in Vieux Nice. These herald the conceptual redirection of his work.

the literary review Identités, created by Marcel Alocco, dedicates issue 11/12 to the École de Nice.

George Brecht and Robert Filliou open La Cédille qui Sourit (The Smiling Cedilla), at 12 rue de May in Villefranche-sur-mer.

at l’Artistique where Théâtre Total puts on a play by Marcel Alocco, Ben and Robert Bozzi, La Table, members of the collective share a meal on stage.

Galerie A presents Claude Viallat's first solo exhibition. The artist exhibits his ‘frameless’ artworks produced at his La Trinité-Victor studio, free canvases brought to life with recurring motifs, such as sponges and beans.

L’Oeil écoute gallery in Lyon holds its first exhibition entitled « École de Nice : Arman, Chubac, Deschamps, Farhi, Gette, Gilli, Malaval, Pavlos, Venet et Viallat ».

Gérard Patris - a film and TV director– produces the film L’École de Nice featuring Arman, Ben and Raysse.

Marcel Alocco and Francis Mérino set up the review Open. From February 1967 (issue 1) to autumn 1968 (issue 4), the review publishes articles by different artists including (Emmett Williams, Ben, Alocco).

Alexandre de la Salle et Francis Mérino hold the first exhibition entitled « École de Nice ? » in Vence. The exhibition brings together Alocco, Arman, Arnal, Ben, César, Chubac, Farhi, Gette, Gilli, Malaval, Annie Martin, Raysse, Venet and Viallat.

Jacques Lepage organises the exhibition « L’École de Nice - Arman, Yves Klein, Martial Raysse » at the Galerie des Ponchettes. In parallel, Lepage devises an exhibition of documents relating to the École de Nice at Club Antonin Artaud on rue Alberti. For this exhibition, he calls on Alocco, Arman, Ben, Biga, Brecht, Chubac, Farhi, Gette, Gilli, Klein, Pollet-Declercq, Malaval, Raysse, Tréal, Venet, Verdet and Viallat.

Marcel Alocco and poet Raphaël Monticelli create the informal group INterVENTION.

Alocco, Chubac, Saytour and Viallat hold an outdoor exhibition, « Quelque chose » [Something], on a beach in Cannes across from the Palais des Festivals.

as part of the Rencontres Poétiques de Coaraze poetry festival, Jacques Lepage commissions Claude Viallat to organise an exhibition in the village. Viallat invites Dezeuze, Pagès et Saytour. The works, most of which are frameless paintings on fabric, are displayed on the façade and courtyard of the church, hang from balconies in the streets and are placed on the ground or against walls.

Noël Dolla completes his first outdoor installation, Propos Neutre n° 2 - Restructuration spatiale. At an altitude of 2,000 metres, on the peak of the Authion, he paints circles on the rocks in pink vinyl.

Raphaël Monticelli organises the exhibition INterVENTION 70, at Galerie Alexandre de la Salle, joined by Alocco, Charvolen, Dolla, Maccaferi, Miguel and Osti.

on the Promenade des Anglais opposite the Négresco Hotel, Pierre Pinoncelli prepares to start his epic event ‘Nice-Beijing by Bike’ beneath a banner painted by Ben.

Dezeuze, Pagès, Saytour et Viallat create Intérieur-Extérieur, an artistic event comprising 12 open-air exhibitions held between Céret and Villefranche-sur-Mer. The works are shown in various ways: strung up between two trees, sat on the ground and even hung inside a disused barn in the countryside.

Formation of Groupe 70: Louis Chacallis, Marx Charvolen, Vivien Isnard, Serge Maccaferri, Martin Miguel.

the Supports/Surfaces group is invited to the Théâtre de Nice (Arnal, Bioulès, Cane, Dezeuze, Devade, Dolla, Saytour, Valensi et Viallat).

painter Henri Baviéra holds an open-air exhibition entitled Jardin d’Explosition in his garden in Saint-Paul-de-Vence. Some fifty artists are invited including Alocco, Ben, Biga, Chacallis, Charvolen, Chubac, Dolla, Isnard, Maccaferri, Miguel, Roualdès, Verdet et Viallat.

At the Théâtre de Nice, Jacques Lepage holds, Hors langage, a show combining concrete, visual and audio poetry, actions and live performance. Fluxus presents Higgins, Ben, Filliou, Serge III, Vostell. The poster is designed by Viallat.

Studio Ferrero presents the exhibition « École de Nice », 1953-1973 featuring the following artists: Alocco, Arman, Ben, Biga, Bizos, César, Chacallis, Charvolen, Chubac, Dolla, Erebo, Farhi, Flexner, Goa, Gilli, Isnard, Klein, Lachèze, Maccaferri, Malaval, Martinez, Miguel, Raysse, Serge III, Sosno, Tréal, Venet, Verdet, Vernassa, Wurz.

Ben designs a new event and exhibition space. Open every summer Malabar et Cunégonde is a pop-up gallery at his home in Saint-Pancrace, on one of the hills in the Collines Niçoises district. Included in his summer exhibitions, Ben holds debates, between 1973 and 1976, in relation to his guest artists, which he names POUR OU CONTRE.

Alexandre de la Salle opens a new gallery in Saint-Paul-de-Vence with the exhibition « Dix artistes de l’École de Nice » [Ten artists from the École de Nice] featuring Alocco, Arman, Ben, Chubac, Farhi, Gilli, Klein, Malaval, Raysse, Verdet. Arman produces the accompanying poster using « École de Nice » rubber stamps.

for the occasion of the opening of the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris, À propos de Nice features 30 artists showcasing the highlights of young creativity on the Côte d’Azur since 1956. The event is devised and organised by Ben Vautier and Maurice Eschapasse.